Vascular Smooth Muscle cells
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the stromal cells of the vascular wall, and, due to their myosin/actin interactions, they are also responsible for arterial contractile tonus and regulating blood pressure and flow in relation to specific metabolic demands. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have enormous applications in regenerative medicine. Studies have demonstrated that smooth muscle-like cells (SMLCs) can be derived from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. Due to the easy expansion, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an alternative source of VSMCs particularly for old patients having stem cells with impaired function.